Research data is:
The Office of Research Integrity defines research data as:
NIH Sharing Policy for NIH-Funded Research Resources states that "the results and accomplishments of the activities that it funds should be made available to the public. PIs and funding recipient institutions are expected to make the results and accomplishments of their activities available to the research community and to the public at large."
NSF Data Sharing Policy states that "investigators are expected to share with other researchers, at no more than incremental cost and within a reasonable time, the primary data, samples, physical collections and other supporting materials created or gathered in the course of work under NSF grants."
AHRQ's new public access policy states that "digitally formatted scientific data resulting from unclassified research supported wholly or in part by Federal funding should be stored and publicly accessible to search, retrieve, and analyze."
In addition all AHRQ-funded researchers will be "required to include a data management plan for sharing final research data in digital format, or state why data sharing is not possible."
Many journals require data be made available to readers.
This short video, created by the librarians at NYU's Ehrman Health Sciences Library, tells a data management cautionary tale of what should not happen when a researcher makes a data sharing request.